Common Causes of Paint Defects
Let's face it, the general environment is the culprit. Rain, wind, dust, debris, sun, and more all contribute to the degradation of the clear coat that protects your car's paint, leading to microscopic imperfections that you can see in general but don't understand.
Types of Paint Damage:
2.1 Spider Web Swirls Marks
Spider swirl marks are the most common scratches visible on vehicles. These defects occur below the surface and can affect color, gloss, and the reflective nature of paint. Spider swirl marks are caused by lack of regular washing, inconsistent or improper cleaning technique and direction, washing sections that are too large, using cleaning media that are too harsh, and washing the top part of a vehicle with the same cleaning solution used for the bottom part where most contamination occurs. Dirt, dust and other contaminants can easily become embedded in a wash mitt to cause spider swirl marks.
2.2 Marring and Micro Marring
Another sub-surface paint defect is marring. Not quite a scratch, marring is essentially an abrasion of the paint. Micro marring is another below-the-surface defect that is slightly different, occurring during final polishing. It leaves the surface hazy, dull and lifeless.
2.3 Buffer Trails and Holograms
Human hands cause these below-the-surface defects, but they are light and easy to remove. Body shops and inexpensive ca washes typically cause these imperfections and often stay hidden until glaze or wax degrades.
2.4 Random Isolated Deep Scratches
You may not see these, either, but they often become apparent during the paint correction process. Lighter topical scratches, such as spider swirls often mask these defects during initial detailing inspections. Removal of multiple layers of typical small scratches frequently unmasks the problem.
2.5 Bird Droppings and Bird Drop Etchings
Bird droppings, and fecal matter from other animals, are time bombs that, if not removed quickly, can cause paint etching. These imperfections appear as subtle recessed blemishes in your paint's clear coat. Machine polish or paint correction can easily remove them.
2.6 Light Type I Water Spots
These are light mineral deposits left behind by evaporated water that usually has a high content of solids. Moisture on a dirty vehicle can also trap various contaminants, causing the same result, embedding into the paint surface.
2.7 Medium Type II Water Spots
Medium water spots penetrate partially below the surface of clear coat and cause slight etching. Severity depends on the type and concentration of chemical or mineral contamination. Some medium water spots may need machine polishing for removal.
2.8 Heavy Type III Water Spots
Essentially, these are type II spots that exist on single-stage paint due to its soft, porous nature that allows contaminants to penetrate.
2.9 Phantom Water Spots
Phantom water spots are caused by mineral deposits that reappear hours or days after pain correction or following a ceramic coating. These defects happen because the paint received too much heat from the paint correction process.
2.10 Road Tar
Road tar sits on top of your pain and comes from a buildup of road contamination launched from your car's tires. It's a combination of exhaust and rubber particles and commonly occurs on lower rocker panels or behind wheels. If left on the paint too long, it can cause damage.
2.11 Topical Bonded Contamination
This term is simply a fancy name for contaminants that land on your car due to everyday driving. Contaminants can include dust, pollen, industrial fallout, brake dust, and a lot more. Layers of contaminants bond to paint and layer on top of them, making the problem worse the longer you let it go. These can feel like random bumps, but in heavy concentrations, they may feel similar to light grit sandpaper. A clay bar can easily remove this contamination.
2.12 Tree Sap
Tree sap as a topical defect occurs when sap or smaller droplets fall on vehicle surfaces. The sap adheres and hardens on the surface, creating a hard particulate. If tree sap is left too long, it can lead to paint etching.
Check this guide for tree sap removal
2.13 Bug Guts and Parts
You know how you feel when bugs smash into your windshield. They also smash into your paint and create surface pain defects if not removed promptly because of their proteins, which are harmful to automotive finishes. The larger the insect, the bigger the problem.
2.14 Paint Oxidation and Ultraviolet Fading
These issues occur below the surface and are a result of long-term exposure to the sun and the elements. These two factors can cause paint to appear dull and sometimes even chalky, especially when you have neglected the exterior for a long time.
2.15 Clear Coat Failure
This problem appears as subtly dull or white patches in its early stages on your vehicle's horizontal surfaces. As oxidation continues, paint begins to flake off. Horizontal areas of your car are most prone to clear coat failure because they receive the most ultraviolet and elemental exposure along with topical contamination.
Materials and Preparation for Paint Restoration
Allow a full day for the work as paint correction can take up to eight hours. Before you begin working on your vehicle, make sure you have the necessary materials to do the job properly:
- Microfiber towels
- Paint clay bar, towel, mitt or pad
- High-quality detergent for washing
- Bug/tar remover
- Clay lube or detailing liquid
- Orbital buffer or rotary polisher
- Polishing and cutting pads
- Liquid paint compound
- Ceramic coating
- Bright overhead LED light
You can buy much of this equipment at an automotive parts store or home improvement store. Fortador also carries a complete selection of detailing chemicals that are appropriate for prepping your car for paint correction. Good lighting is a must as paint imperfections can hide in darkness and shadows.
Before attempting paint correction, you should also determine how much clear coat is on the vehicle surface. Most vehicles have about four to five millimeters of coating, depending on the original painting process. Of that, about 1.5 to two millimeters will be clear coat. Some vehicles may have thicker clear coats, so measuring the depth is important. Buy a paint depth gauge. The more you spend on it, the more accurate the gauge will be. Measure several areas on each panel of your car. These measurements will tell you where you have thin clear coat and need to be careful. Vehicles that have been detailed many times will, most likely, have less clear coat.
Take off all jewelry, including wedding rings and watches before starting. If you are wearing a belt, make sure that your shirt completely covers the buckle. Now, you are ready to begin.
The ABC's of Paint Protection and Correction Process
A. Thoroughly Wash and Clay Your Car
Completely remove road grime and debris from your vehicle, along with sand, rain spots, bird droppings, pollen and other particles. Once you have washed your car, take a large clay bar and spray clay or detailing lubricant on a small area of your vehicle and run the clay bar over the clear coat to remove any stubborn embedded contaminants. After running the clay bar over the area, wipe it down with a microfiber cloth and then feel the paint. To do this, place your fingers in a thin plastic bag, which augments the sensation. If the area doesn't feel smooth, clay it again. Once you have finished, fold the clay in on itself about a half dozen times to move the contaminants to the center and then move onto the next section. When claying, start with the hood and the roof and then work your way down.
This step is extremely important because if you don't do it, you'll swirl dirt and contaminants you can't see into the clear coat. Never reuse a clay bar. Always buy a new one for the next job. After claying, tape off areas like glass, light lenses, plastic trim and chrome that you don't want buffed.
If you have stubborn tar or bug guts embedded, take a microfiber towel, use it with bug and tar remover and clean the area. You won't need to repeat claying.
Check this complete guide for clay bar detailing
B. Paint Inspection and Determining the Correction Stage
Take your overhead light and closely inspect the paint, going over it section by section to determine which stage of paint correction your vehicle needs. Vehicles with heavy swirls and scratches will need Stage 3 Paint Correction. Stage 2 Paint Correction is for cars with some swirls and light scratches. If you see few scratches and mostly dullness, choose Stage 1 Paint Correction. Refer to our graphic, the ABC's of Paint Correction and Protection, for easy reference on accomplishing this protective job.
Pro Tip: Don't Skip the Test Zone - Ensure Perfect Results
Always create a test zone before paint correction. It helps you find the best products and techniques, ensuring flawless results on your vehicle. Save time and achieve a stunning, like-new shine.
C. Compound Step: Removing Heavy Damage
For vehicles that have heavy damage, you'll need a heavy cutting compound and pad to remove the damage. If you have heavy scratches or orange peel, perform spot wet sanding with the rotary buffer or by hand with 400 grit sandpaper prior to applying the heavy cutting compound. This action replaces orange peel with finer and finer scratches that you'll eventually fill in with finishing polish.
D. Polish Step: Addressing Medium Swirls and Holograms
To remove medium swirls and rotary buffer holograms, use an abrasive polish and pad to remove the defects. Follow that with a finishing polish applied by a different pad to refine the paintwork.
E. Finishing Polish Step: Dealing with Light Defects
For removal of light defects, you only need to use a finishing polish and a finishing pad or a one-step paint cleaner to buff away minor defects and perfect the paint's gloss. Using a finishing polish also occurs as the last step in Stage 2 and Stage 3 restoration before moving on to the protective steps. Without polishing, you'll have an exterior surface that is level but it rather dull looking. That's why you need the polishing step, followed by the next one, the protective coating.
F. Applying a Protective Coating on Car Paint: Nano Wax or Ceramic Coating?
Essentially, when you perform paint correction, you remove the car's clear coat to a certain degree through wet sanding and the cutting compound. This holds more so for deeper defects, so you must apply a protective coating. Paint protection will reduce the need for the paint correction process in the future, along with giving your car an enhanced level of shine and protection. You have two choices: nano wax or ceramic coating.
Traditionally, automotive wax is the option of choice. Fortador's nano wax is an excellent choice as it combines high-grade Carnauba wax, sealant polymers, and UV inhibitors to form a protective layer on the paint surface. By applying this wax, you'll get protection for up to five months.
Another, an even better option is applying our car ceramic coating. car ceramic provides an incredibly hard layer that needs replacement less often than nano wax. It bonds to the surface of the paint or what is left of the clear coat to provide exceptional protection. Protecting your vehicle with Fortador coating is one of the best choices you can make as it provides a secure barrier between your car and the elements like dirt, dust, road chemicals and more. You won't have to wash, detail, or provide your vehicle with paint protection as frequently. The benefits go beyond that too. Cars and other vehicles protected with a high-quality ceramic coating will last longer and have a higher resale value. Fortador car ceramic coating offers you the best paint protection on the market.
Professional Paint Protection Cost: What to Expect
You'll find wide ranges on the cost of professional paint restoration. The amount charged depends on the severity of the defects found in the paint. Expect to pay $500 to over $2,000 for a professional paint restoration service. In contrast, you usually can buy everything you need for well under $1,000, with most of what you purchase clean and applicable for multiple uses on several cars. By doing so, you'll save a lot of money if you have the wherewithal to do the job yourself. However, you should note that if your car has deep and severe scratches or other defects that go well below the paint surface, you may be better off asking a professional to do the first round of paint correction. Improper buffing can cause many different types of paint defects, so take a severely affected vehicle to a professional first and then attempt periodic touch-ups on your own.
Maintaining a Paint Corrected Exterior: PRO Tips and Recommendations
The first job is always the hardest. Once you have performed pant correction, you should attempt a redo every six to 12 months. By doing so, you'll keep your vehicle exterior in tip-top condition.